Soil monitoring in mining is the process of monitoring and evaluating the changes that occur in the land around the mining site. Soil monitoring in mining has an important role in preventing environmental damage. With proper monitoring, mining companies can identify possible impacts on soils and take appropriate preventive measures.
Types of Soil in Mining
In mining, various types of soil can be encountered depending on the geographic location and geological conditions. Some common soil types that can be found in mining areas include:
- Topsoil: Topsoil is the top layer of soil that is rich in organic matter and nutrients. This soil is very important in supporting the growth of vegetation. Prior to commencing mining activities, the topsoil layer is often removed and stored separately for reuse in the post-mining rehabilitation phase.
- Subsoil: Subsoil is the layer of soil below the topsoil. Typically, these soils have a denser structure and are less fertile than topsoil. Subsoil can be affected by mining activities, such as compaction and significant physical changes.
- Compacted Soil: Mining activities can cause soil compaction, in which soil particles close together and reduce pore space. Compacted soil tends to have poor drainage, restricts the movement of water and air, and affects plant root growth.
- Rocky Ground: Some mining areas can have soil containing lots of small or large stones. The presence of rock in the soil can affect the soil’s ability to retain water, support vegetation growth, and affect agricultural activities or post-mining land rehabilitation.
- Acidic Soil: Some mining areas may have soil that is highly acidic. This can happen because of the interaction between chemical additives used in mining with water and soil. Acidic soils can have a negative impact on vegetation growth and surrounding water quality.
- Soil Contamination: Mining activities involving chemicals or mining waste can cause soil contamination. Contaminated soil may contain heavy metals, toxic chemicals, or other hazardous substances that can negatively impact the environment and human health.
- Mine Land: After the completion of mining, ex-mining land often experiences changes in the nature and composition of the soil. These soils may undergo significant physical and chemical changes and require intensive rehabilitation to restore their quality.
The Importance of Soil Monitoring in Mining for Local Communities
Soil monitoring in mining is not only important for the mining company itself, but also has a significant impact on the surrounding community. Following are some of the reasons why soil monitoring in mines is important for local communities:
- Public Health Protection: Soil monitoring helps identify any presence of soil contamination that could negatively impact the health of the surrounding community. Mining activities can lead to increased concentrations of heavy metals or toxic chemicals in soil, which can contaminate water sources and plants. With proper monitoring, prevention and mitigation measures can be taken to protect public health from the effects of soil contamination.
- Natural Resource Sustainability: Soil monitoring helps maintain the sustainability of natural resources for the surrounding community. By monitoring changes in soil quality, soil erosion and degradation, prevention and rehabilitation measures can be taken to ensure the sustainability of agriculture, forest sustainability and the use of other natural resources that are important for the livelihoods and lives of local communities.
- Protection of Water Resources: Soil plays an important role in maintaining the quality of groundwater. With soil monitoring, mining companies can identify changes that could affect groundwater quality such as erosion, contamination, or changes in drainage. In this way, steps can be taken to protect water sources that are important to local communities, both for consumption and for agricultural and industrial activities.
- Socio-Economic Impacts: Soil monitoring in mining also has significant socio-economic impacts on the surrounding communities. Healthy, productive soil is important for agriculture, natural resource sustainability and local economies. By monitoring and maintaining soil quality, mining companies can minimize negative impacts on people’s livelihoods, reduce social conflict, and increase the prosperity and well-being of surrounding communities.
- Transparency and Community Participation: Transparent and participatory land monitoring enables local communities to understand and monitor the impacts of mining on their lands. This provides an opportunity for communities to provide input, report changes they observe, and take an active role in decision-making related to their environment. This increases community involvement in environmental protection efforts and ensures that their interests are respected.
Thus, soil monitoring in mining is not only important for the company, but also for the surrounding community. This helps protect public health, maintain the sustainability of natural resources, protect water sources, influence socio-economic impacts, and ensure community participation in environmental decision-making.
Also read the Indonesian version of the article : https://taharica.co.id/pemantauan-tanah-tambang-untuk-mencegah-kerusakan-linkungan/